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编者按:娃妮莎(vanessa 是一名社会工作者,专注于性工作者的情况和经验。她于2016618日在芳林公园举行的《您被警察逮着咋办?》集会上演讲,以下是讲稿的中文翻译。

13419099_10153806730689141_8220941498142581703_n争取实现新加坡朝向一个尊重法治和审讯程序的国家

 

调查张素兰和鄞玉林的事件已经引伸出了一些问题,我们现在更了解所谓的“冷静日”和它对言论自由的影响!我们现在也知道“冷静日”的行政措施对待主流媒体和非主流媒体的双重标准!我们现在知道了违反“冷静日”的标准是一项可以被逮捕的犯法行为!

调查张素兰和鄞玉林的事件也强调,对国家来说,法律意味着什么。当法律说某些事情是被定为触犯“可被逮捕的行为”时,警方人员可以把你拘留几个小时, 他们穿鞋闯入你的家,并拿走你的个人财产!警方人员也可以在未取得搜查令的情况下,窃取你存储在电子设备里的所有个人资料。

百里挑一

今天,我有很多话要说。但是, 我要集中在两个问题上。

第一,这件事充分说明新加坡国人对自己拥有的权利懂得非常少。

这些天以来,我一直听到大家在问这些问题:“警方有权检查我的手机吗?”、“警察有权搜查我随身携带的背包吗?”、“我可以拒绝他们的要求吗?”、“在我没有做错事的情况下,警方是否有权挡我的路并拍我的像?”

对于这些问题,我自己认为你最好与他们合作;但是, 你可以质问,你可以问他们: “我到底做错了什么事?是不是有什么问题我应该更加注意的?但是,我觉得当我这样说话时,已经让我感到很不自在了。如果要我把自己的所有数据和物件交给一个陌生人,我觉得原则上已经是不对了。

接着我要谈的是第二个主要问题,

一个可能还没有被探讨的问题,即个人隐私的重要性,即便你奉公守法也是一样。

昨晚在我准备今天的讲稿时,我听了Ted Talk节目播放格林沃德(Glenn Greenwald)(英国《卫报》记者)的讲话。【注:TED(指technology, entertainment, design在英语中的缩写,即技术、娱乐、设计)。他是美国的一家私有非营利机构,该机构以它组织的TED大会著称。TED诞生於1984年,其发起人是里查德·沃曼。2002年起,克里斯·安德森接管TED,创立了种子基金会(The Sapling Foundation),并营运TED大会。每年3月,TED大会在美国召集众多科学、设计、文学、音乐等领域的杰出人物,分享他们关於技术、社会、人的 思考和探索.

他首先在谈到,“我并没有任何东西可以隐瞒,因为我根本没有做错任何事情”,这个论点根本站不住脚的。事实上,当人们这样说话的时候,他们往往就是竭尽一切去保护自己的隐私权。

马克·艾略特·扎克伯格(Mark ZuckerburgFacebook社交网创办者)甚至说过这样的一段话:“隐私权已经死亡了”。但是,他却买了一排四幢房子,以便避开哪些专门追逐名人的摄影记者,保护自己的隐私权。

我们并不是像扎克伯格那样的亿万富翁,但我们也会有我们认为要保密的东西。例如,我在没有人的情况下放屁或抠鼻子;假设我是在众人面前做这种事,我将被人谩骂而感到羞愧。旁人会说我“不像一个妇道人家”,因此,我还是在家里干这种事。我们都知道,屁撇在肚子里是很难受的。你的肚子开始抽筋,你开始感到肚子肿胀,有时你会感到剧疼,尤其是你有胃病的时候。

这就是侵犯隐私权的后果,它伤害我们大家。鄞玉林和张素兰的经历明确地说明,警察所赋予的巨大权力,可以任意拿走和翻炒你电脑里的所有数据和资料,只要国会通过新法令就行了。假设您与张素兰或鄞玉林交换电邮、您向鄞玉林发送照片,或者电邮支持张素兰,警方可很能都知道这一切。这本来就不是任何非法或者不对的作法,但您现在总是觉得自己受到无时无刻的监视。然而,警方现在可以如此轻易地截获这些资料,他们不一定会滥用这些资料,但我们却知道这些人有权力拥有有关我们私有的资料,他们会影响我们的一举一动。

格林沃德(Glenn Greenwald)也谈到边登(Jeremy Bentham)的圆形监狱(Panopticon)理论(见注释)。简单地说,他就是设计了一个监狱模型,它的外形就是这样(用手势比喻),中间有个看守岗哨。犯人可以看到岗哨,但是犯人无法看到岗哨里面是否有人。另一方面,岗哨可以看到每一座牢房里以及牢房的每一个角落。边登认为,这是一个让每一个人自我制约的最好方法,自我审查让自己成为一个听话和顺从的人,这样的模式不仅适用于监狱;这就是为什么我们需要正当的程序,尊重法治。

这些人权的侵犯,对边缘化族群尤其显著,他们包括外劳、性工作者、青年人和残障人士。让我再举个例子!

这是我的工作范围,我花很多时间在红灯区工作。有一回,我在一家咖啡店与一群变性的性工作者一起吃饭。我们被6-7名男子和一名女子围住。他们其中的一个指着我们的说,“我要你!我要你!我要你!”他指着我。我问他:“你是谁?”他说:“他是警察。”在我的脑海里,我想你不会是这样的吧?我也同时在想:“你要我又怎么样?我不要你!”我要求他出示授权令,他出示了一张没有名字、没有警察支部名字的牌子,上面只有一张面孔和徽章。他要求我们出示身份证,我把身份证交给他,问他是不是有什么事情,我们正在吃晚餐。与此同时,一名警官走过来,用很温和的口吻和我们说话。他告诉我:“没啥事,一切都很好。请您坐下来,别紧张,”我是一名非华族、非性工作者坐在这张桌子上,看来似乎只有我一个人受到如此有礼貌的待遇,在座的其他人都得面向墙壁,他们每一个人都有一名警官看守着。警方为他们每一个人拍照并记录个人资料。让我感到更加惊讶的是,这些警员告诉他们每一个人,“我不要看到你们在这里制造麻烦!”没有任何迹象说明他们犯了什么错误,但他们还是受训斥。在没有任何证据的情况下,这些人却被视为罪犯看待。何来正当的审讯程序?何来法治?

我们大家必须回家各自自己进行探讨。我们需要收集资料,参加组织,共同学习,为新加坡创造一个尊重法治和问讯程序的国家。如果你们不知道如何着手,请让我知道,我可以提供建议。

注:

监狱(Panopticon)理论,是引申自英国法学大师边登(Jeremy Bentham)根据可视性原则设计的圆形监狱。在边登的圆形监狱设计图中(如上图所示)我们可以看到,整个监狱是一个像圆环状的建筑,在其中央造一个塔楼,上面开很大观察窗面对圆环的内侧,四周是一系列按层次划分的牢房。每个牢房中有两个窗户:一个让光线照进来,另一个面对塔楼,塔楼通过这个大观察窗可以对牢房内部进行监视。于是牢房“变成了一个小剧院,每个演员都是单独的,即被完全个体化了又是时时可见的”。犯人不仅对监视者来说是可见的,且只为监视者所看见而不与之发生任何接触。任何在恰当的位置上的人都可能操作这种建筑机器,而任何人都可能受其管制。监视者很容易观察一个罪犯、学童或妻子。这种建筑如此完善,以至于在监视者不存在的情况下其监督机制仍能有效地运作。“犯人看不见监视者是否在塔楼里,因此犯人必须循规蹈矩——仿佛监视是永久性和总体性的。如果犯人不能肯定他是被监视的,他就变成了自己的监视者。”边登声称他的这个发现是一个“哥伦布之蛋”,因为他找到了“意识形态国家机器”们一直寻找的东西——权力技术。 

整 个圆形监狱的圆环建筑是一个封闭式的建筑群,它自成体系。塔楼是在这一建筑群中央的高楼,这使得它既是这一体系内部的组成部分,又因为是塔楼而比其他的建 筑高。它处于圆环的中央,与圆环上的其他建筑群相分离,保持一定的距离。塔楼最主要的作用在于透过它的大观察窗,对圆环上的牢房进行监视。为了扩大监视的 视野,保证监视的效果,只有采取高一层的塔楼监视低一层的监狱,而不应该由同一层的塔楼来监视同一层的监狱。这一体系本身的布局,决定了监视者和犯人是相 互独立的,他们分处于不同的建筑中,所以他们之间的监督与被监督关系是通过一种“遥控”的过程而建立起来的。监督者不需要时时工作而其监督作用却时时存在。这种“遥控”的工具可能是特定的法律法规,也可能是某种技术层面的东西。圆形监狱最大的好处在于即使 (??)

 监狱(Panopticon)理论

Vanessa

To work towards making Singapore a place

13423877_10153806728084141_8736105440595168442_n

where rule of law and due process is respected.

The investigations of Teo Soh Lung and Roy Ngerng brought up a few things.

We now know better about “cooling off day” and its ramifications for freedom of speech, we now know the double standards of cooling off day measures for mainstream press and alternative press, and we now know that violating the standards is an arrestable offence.

It has also highlighted to the country

what exactly the law means when it says that something is an arrestable offence—where police officers can detain your person for hours on end, troop into your house without taking off their shoes and seize your properties, and go through all your data without a warrant.

There is so much to say but today I think I want to zoom in on two things. One,

this incident has highlighted just how little Singaporeans know about our rights.

All day everyday I hear the question

 “can the police check my phone?”, “can the police search my bag?” “can I say no to them?” “do the police have a right to stop me and take my photograph even if I didn’t do anything?”.

All I ever say is you better cooperate lor, but you can ask them questions lah. Like, what’s wrong and is something the matter that I should be concerned about etc. But I feel uncomfortable saying those things because fundamentally, it seems so wrong that I just have to lan lan hand over all my data and all my stuff to a complete stranger.

Which brings me to my second important point that may not have been addressed:

the importance of privacy, even if you did not do anything “wrong”.

I watched a great Ted Talk last night while doing my research for this speech. Glenn Greenwald gave a talk about how firstly, the “I didn’t do anything wrong and therefore I have nothing to hide” argument rarely holds any water. That the fact is people who say such things often then go to great lengths to protect their privacy. Mark Zuckerburg said something to the extent that “privacy is dead” but then went on to buy 4 houses in a row so that he could protect his privacy and stay away from the paparazzi. We’re not billionaires like Mark, but we all have things which we would rather keep private. For example, I fart and dig my nose when nobody is around. If I did it in front of people, I’d be shamed and scolded. I’d be called un-ladylike. So I do it in the privacy of my own home.

We all know how bad it feels like to hold fart in. Your stomach starts to cramp, and you feel really bloated. Sometimes you might even feel sharp pains. More so if you suffer from gastric.

That’s what a breach of our right to privacy does—it hurts us—and this incident with Roy and Soh Lung just shows how much power the police has to take away your data and troll through everything. All  parliament has to do is to pass a new law. If you’ve had a conversation with Soh Lung or Roy online, the police probably has it. Maybe you sent a dick pic to Roy or a solidarity message to Soh Lung. It’s not illegal or “wrong” to do so, but now you feel like you’re being watched. Yet it was so damned easy for the police to acquire such data. They may not do anything about it, but knowing that something private is now in the hands of someone powerful has ramifications on us and our behaviour.

Glenn Greenwald also talked about the Panopticon as theorized by Jeremy Bentham. Simply put, he devised a model for a prison where it is shaped like this (gestures), and with a watch tower in the middle. The prisoners couldn’t see if there was anyone in the watch tower, but they could see the watchtower. On the other hand, the watch tower can see into each and every cell and each and every corner of that cell. Bentham realised that this was a great way to get people to self regulate. To self censor. To become obedient and compliant. This model works not just for prisons.  That is why we need due process and a respect for the rule of law.

These violations of our human rights tend to be exacerbated for marginalised communities. Migrant workers, sex workers, youths, people with disabilities. Let me give you another example.

 

In the course of my work, I spend quite a lot of time at night in red light districts. Once, I was sitting at a coffeeshop having dinner with a bunch of transgender sex workers. A group of about 6 – 7 men and one woman surrounded our table. One of them started pointing fingers at people and saying “I want you, I want you, I want you.” He pointed to me. I asked him who are you?? He said he’s from the police. And in my head I was thinking, couldn’t you have led with that? I was also thinking “so what if I want me—I don’t want you!”. I asked him for his warrant. Didn’t have a name or a branch. Just a face with a shiny insignia. He asked for our ICs and so while I was handing it over,

I asked if anything was the matter. We were just having our dinner. Roughly around this time, an officer came up to me and started to be very nice. He told me “it’s okay, everything is okay. Pls take a seat don’t worry.” As the only non-chinese and non sex worker at the table, it seemed like I was the only one accorded this treatment. Everyone else was backed up against walls, each person had one officer attending to them, and they had their photographs and details taken down. What’s more shocking is that each of them were told “I don’t want to see you cause trouble here ah!”. This, even without evidence that they did anything wrong. This, without being proven guilty, they were all treated as criminals. Where is the due process? Where is the rule of law?

We should all go home and do our own research. Form a group to read materials together. Volunteer for an organization to learn more. To do our part in order to work towards making Singapore a place where rule of law and due process is respected. If you don’t know where to go, let me know and I can provide some suggestions.

秉公处理

相关链接网址:

1.张素兰:《咱们的警察部队是干啥的? What is happening to our Police Force?》

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/05/31/

2.TOC:《鄞玉林和张素兰现在面对警方广泛的调查 Roy Ngerng Yiling and Teo Soh Lung are now being extensively investigated

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/01/

3. Function 8严厉谴责政府滥用权力对付个别公民及公民社会组织 Function 8 condemns use of gov’t powers against individual citizens and civil society groups

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/01/

  1. 朱正熙律师:我对警方的许多感到失望

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/01/

 

5.工人党就“冷静日调查事件”发表声明

 https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/01/

 

  1. 民主党发表声明:要求平等对待冷静日

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/01/

7.鄞玉林:《民主就是集体强奸》

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/02/

8. 武吉巴督补选冷静日违例事件 警方充公涉案电子器材进行调查

http://www.channel8news.sg/news8/singapore/20160601-sg-cooling-off/2837302.html

9.新加坡社区行动网络发起联署声明;停止所有对张素兰和鄞玉林的调查行动

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/02/

  1. 视频录像网址:警方人员在搜查张素兰家https://www.facebook.com/jeannette.aruldoss/videos/10201742041470598/

11.陈华彪:心字头上一把刃

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/02/

12.张素兰:我是否能够期盼获得一个公平和独立的调查?

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/03/

13.张缓蓉:在“破坏”选举条例下,警方骚扰新加坡的社会活动积极分子

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/04/

  1. 克莉丝叮.韩莉颖:如何诠释冷静日条例?

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/05/

  1. 鄞玉林:请再别让无辜的人们被起诉了!

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/07/

16.社区行动网络组织致函警方要求澄清问题

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/10/

17. 张素兰:是啊!被警察抓去咋办?

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/16/

18.国际特赦组织发表声明

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/17/

19. 社区公民网络、FUNCTION 8和THINK CENTRE发表联合声明

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/17/

20. 白玉柱:我们坚信政府应该对推进社会权利的对话活动是表示欢迎!

https://renminglishiziliaoaku.wordpress.com/2016/06/20/

 

 

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